Manual Geostatistics for Natural Resources Characterization: Part 1

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Geostatistics for Natural Resources Characterization. Part 1 - PDF

Filtered By:. Grid List. This paper adds to the understanding of monsoon precipitation in Southern Africa as a contribution to isotope hydrological studies in that region. Two rain collectors were installed at an altitude of 34 m and m about 60 km and km west of the Indian Ocean. The mean annual rainfall in is lower than for the period and is most pronounced for the dry season. The observed high deuterium-excess values suggest contributions from different water vapour sources that evaporated under varying conditions over the trail of ITCZ. Climate change could be blamed on observed water quality decline.

This is an undesirable response in any supply project based on groundwater that could produce negative effects as health hazards for the population, undesirable impacts to infrastructure, and increases of maintenance costs for economic activities. The objective of this work is to propose the control of groundwater quality in extraction boreholes when the dynamics of the governing flow systems is defined by establishing their hierarchy as proposed by the Groundwater Flow Systems GFS. Understanding GFS and their role in extracted groundwater provides adequatestrategies for efficient water use and its corresponding planning and management.

Usually boreholes response to groundwater extraction is a mixture of flows of different hierarchy. Vertical inflows increase their importance as drawdown progresses with extraction time. Results suggest climatic conditions may affect local flows. A joint groundwater monitoring for adequate managing is highly satisfactory ie. The western part of India is hot desert, which is known as Thar Desert.

The largest extent of this desert is spread over Rajasthan state.

The development of IGCP project has bought changes in the land use pattern in terms of increase in area under the agriculture. The increase in area under agriculture and under irrigation network has brought fluctuations in the groundwater level. This fluctuation in groundwater level is result of the seepage of water through the excessive irrigation and the seepage from the canal network. Thus the human impact in form of land-use pattern of a land is an important determinant of rise and fall in groundwater level. The spatial and temporal variation in groundwater level has been analysed Inverse Distance Weightage technique across different pentards for observation wells of the Anupgarh, Vijayanagar and Suratgarh tehsil of Sriganganagar district of Rajasthan, which lies in the northwestern part of IGCP Stage I.

Rajasthan is one of the water scarce states of India where the annual average rainfall varies from less than to mm. Kolayat area of district Bikaner located in western part of the state, receives average annual rainfall of mm. Owing to the less rainfall of this low magnitude, the water availability problem in the Kolayat area is critical in comparison to many other parts of the state. The groundwater quality of the area through which IGNP canal passes has been studied to understand the effect of canal recharge on groundwater and subsurface movement of recharge pathways.

The study has been carried out across the canal 40 km in the eastern and 20 km in the western direction. The depth to water varies between 10 and 55 m bgl. The water levels are shallow in western direction and upto Bajju in eastern direction from the canal. The water levels become deeper as one moves towards eastern direction. This suggests that the groundwater regime receives recharge from the canal towards western direction and upto Bajju in eastern direction.

The groundwater flow directions obtained from water table contours also reveal the presence of groundwater mound in the vicinity of the canal. Water quality analysis confirms the same result as interpreted from groundwater contours. Further, fluoride in the areas around Chak 4 GMR 3. The study also reveals that recharge from IGNP canal has a long term influence in the study area where groundwater is withdrawn for various activities.

Fresh water resources in most areas of world are shrinking at an alarming rate and may not meet the ever increasing demands for domestic, agriculture and industry in future. The untreated wastewater enters in groundwater, rivers, and other water bodies thereby making it unfit for human consumption.

The projected wastewater generation in India will be , MLD by , which necessitates strengthening of existing treatment plants and investment in new treatment plants for safeguarding fresh water resources and human health. Pre-treatment is an integral part of any wastewater treatment scheme and results in appreciable reduction in capital as well as operating cost associated with downstream units due to reduction in organic load.

A tannin based natural flocculent Tanfloc along with ferric chloride was used for pre-treatment of domestic wastewater using jar-test. The optimum dosage for treatment of municipal wastewater under investigation was 10 ppm ferric chloride with 15 ppm Tanfloc. The persistence of Organochlorine pesticides OCPs and Black Carbon BC was studied in sediment samples from river Yamuna, a major tributary of the Ganges one of the largest, most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia.

High levels High levels of BC 0. The association of BC with various OCPs indicated its importance in retention of some OCPs into fluvial sediments; exhibiting the potential to reduce their bioavailability. As landfills are used to dispose Municipal Solid waste MSW but due to lack of proper engineering facilities, these landfills have always been the source of pollution in the soil and water environment. The leachate samples were collected from Bhalaswa landfill site in Delhi in winter season.

Toxicity tests such as germination inhibition and growth were tested and cell apoptosis was assesed by Flow cytometry. The toxicity tests were conducted by diluting the crude leachate with distilled water and toxicity was recorded against Triticum aestivum Wheat. The results indicate that lower concentration stimulated germination as well as growth while higher concentrations inhibited the process in a time and dose dependent manner. This implies that leachate from the landfill is toxic to plants and exposure to the leachate in aquatic environment may pose a potential risk to the organisms.

The results show that Triticum aestivum treated with different concentrations of leachate induces toxicity in Triticum aestivum in a time and dose dependent manner. The results further indicate the relationship between physicochemical parameters and toxicity. Soil physico-chemical properties and concentrations of heavy metals in the soils around Jharia coalfield in Jharkhand state of India were determined to quantify the levels of contamination in the area.

The extensive coal mining in the area altered physico-chemical properties of the soil. Sites near coal mining areas were heavily contaminated with all the measured heavy metals. At the sites near coal mining areas, Mn, Cu and Ni were near the toxic limits of the respective metals. Soil pollution assessment was carried out using enrichment factor, geo-accumulation index and pollution load index.

Higher enrichment factor for Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd indicated significant inputs from mining activities in the soil. The geo-accumulation index values revealed that Cu, Pb and Ni are significantly accumulated in the study area. The pollution load index derived from contamination factor indicated that the sites near coal mining areas are most polluted. Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component and cluster analyses suggested that Ni, Cu and Pb were derived from anthropogenic sources, particularly coal mining activities and vehicular transport.

Coal has been the leading fuel in the energy industry. Its usage has shown far reaching consequences to health and environment. Occurrence of PAH in coal is well known fact but its effect to the human health is least addressed. It is one of the dangerous carcinogens with its ubiquitous presence in the environment. The present investigation on few coal samples reveals presence of substantial amount of PAH in the Mahanadi basin coalfields.

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Proper mitigation of this substance is required to ensure proper health of the miners and personnel in coal industry. According to International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC a study in by investigators in Japan and England showed lung cancer mortality among workers in coal carbonization and gasification processes. Later on studies in US was carried on coke oven workers which confirmed the lung cancer mortality, with the suggestion of excessive genitourinary system cancer mortality.

Given these implications this investigation attempts to address PAH in the coals of Mahanadi basin. Soil organic matter and soil aggregate stability are good indicators of soil quality and both can be positively affected by reduced tillage and residue management practices. A field study was conducted to find the impacts of tillage and residue management practices on soil carbon stock and distribution of SOC within different soil physical fractions.

The study site was a year experiment divided to six treatment classes, conventional tillage CT and reduced tillage RT with straw incorporated S , straw removed SR and straw burned SB. The soil was segregated into four different classes: large and small macroaggregates, microaggregates and silt and clay which were analyzed for total carbon. Reduced tillage or residue incorporation did not result in higher C sequestration but there were more water stable aggregates in the reduced tillage treatment.

Physical alteration of soil characteristics of especially the plough layer cm is brought about through land culture. The type of land cover, in fact, is an important factor controlling the soil texture, soil organic carbon SOC and soil erosion. The objectives of this paper areto analyze soil particle size distribution in the plough layer and quantify the SOC storage in the finer soil separate under native vegetation cover, cultivated land, eucalyptus plantations and barren land.

A digital land cover map of the study area has been generated using Resourcesat-2 image. Soil samples from plots under different land cover types have been collected from depths of cm and cm. Particle size analysis has been done by dry sieving. Analysis of particle size distribution showed that proportion of sand particle is high. SOC decreased with soil depth under all land cover conditions but showed a reverse trend in some plots of cultivation.

Salt-affected soil SAS is a permanent problem inherited in landscape of arid and semi-arid region due to climatic conditions. Soil sodicity is one of the major problems that deteriorates the quality and quantity of produce and limits the choice of cultivable crops. The objective of the study was to assess the sodicity status in the salt-affected area of Israna.

Soil chemical properties related with sodicity viz.

Geostatistics for natural resources characterization. Part 1

This study reveals that the salt- affected soils are sodic in nature which affects the growth and yield of crops. This paper analyses the dynamics of AOD over north-western part of northern Indian plain during the harvesting season its effect on surface reaching solar radiation from to using MODIS level 2 atmospheric data set. The analysis carried out for post monsoon season during rice harvesting period and is based on 8 days composite AOD, Ozone, Water vapour, and surface pressure data.

Spatial variability of AOD has been shown in 0. AOD levels between and were moderate to high in the western part of North Indian plain, with an average of 0. Radiative forcing in this region during the study period vary pronouncedly amounting to Wm-2 to 11 Wm Environmental pollution is one of the major health problems in both industrialized and developing countries including Sri Lanka. The main categories are water pollution, air pollution, land pollution and noise pollution etc. Out of this, air pollution is one of the severe and growing problem in worldwide and highly affects to the human health specially those who live in urban centers.

It is a dangerous and silent hazard in comparison to other hazards since it is invisible. There are two types of air pollution respectively indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution. Mainly indoor pollution is increasing with human domestic activities and outdoor air pollution is increasing with urbanization, industrialization and transport activities.

The majority of these are motor cycles and three wheels and also other vehicles such as public transports. In that case resent results show that the city of Colombo is heavily polluted and the level of air pollution has been reached to its dangerous levels. During peak traffic hours between 6 am to 8. Air pollution level was increase with rainfall variation of the area. Contamination of air pollutant was travel to another area using wind and Sea breeze.

Main air pollutant emitter was Traffic and vehicles. It was clearly shows with monthly variation of pollutant distribution. Air pollution was increased with festival seasons and school holding time period. Pt, Pd and Rh emitted into the air through the exhausts of cars and trucks collected from Bangalore, Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam cities of south India were assessed in the context of their accumulation and resultant risks on human health and ecology.

Apart from road dusts, respirable suspended particulate matter RSPM samples from these three cities were collected and studied. Road dust and top soil samples from road junctions and traffic signals with heavy and erratic traffic flow showed higher PGE levels than those from roads with low and free flow traffic suggesting that traffic flow conditions greatly influenced emissions of PGE from the auto-catalysts. Further studies on the exposure levels from Hyderabad, showed higher amounts of Pt, Pd and Rh in the blood samples of older people for example, traffic police who are exposed to extreme traffic conditions.

Owing to the adverse health and ecological risk potential of PGE on humans, monitoring their levels, understanding the transformation paths and to find out mitigation methods are necessary. During the last decades, snow-dominated Northern American NA ecosystems have experienced prolonged spring warming and earlier spring onsets.

Recent studies showed that these changes have adverse effects on plant productivity due to water stress. In this study, we analyze relationships between longer non-frozen period, peak summer vegetation greenness index and a drought index by using the three decades of optical satellite data, microwave Freeze-Thaw record and climatic data. Results show that longer non-frozen period caused decline in summer soil moisture availability.

This mechanism may be exacerbated in the future under accelerated spring warming and associated longer growing season, and depending on the future precipitation pattern generally larger degrees of dryness during the peak of the northern growing seasons can be expected. To assess the status of diversity and regeneration of Sabaiya collaborative forest phytosociological study of the forest was carried out and Species Diversity, Importance value index, basal area, density and regeneration status were accessed.

Edaphic characteristics were also studied. A total of 51 species were recorded in the study, of which 15 were represented in tree group, 20 in the shrub group and 9 in the herb group. Both seedling and sapling were represented by 11 species each. The forest was dominated by Shorea robusta The sub-canopy was dominated by Lagerstroemia parviflora and Semecarpusanacardium. The understory was quite sparse and dominated by Shorearobusta and Daubangagrandifloraseedlings; and shrubs such as Clerodendroninfortunatum and Eupatorium oderatum.

Among herbs Cyperusiria and Cynadondactylon were dominant. Similar was the case with other tree species. The soil was sandy loam to loamy sand, slightly acidic to near neutral pH 5. Duckweeds are small; floating aquatic plants belongs to Lemnaceae, capable to degrade phenol in wastewater.

Synthetic wastewater, similar to the characteristics of coke-plant effluents, was prepared in the laboratory, and tested the degradation efficiency in terms of reduction of COD and phenol under different organic loading rate OLR at 4 d and 8 d of hydraulic detention time HRT. Artificial duckweeds ponds were kept in outdoor conditions and meteorological parameters were monitored and used for the estimation of evapo-transpiration rate and degradation of phenol. A design example for the treatment of low temperature coal carbonization wastewater by duckweeds pond system also given.

This paper describes the harmonic motion of the Earth and its calculation method. By comparing the calculated results with measured values of the ITRF , it proof: 1. This is the harmonic motion of the Earth. Harmonic movement of the earth is the basic driving force to promote the evolution of the Earth. Before Ma, the Earth is only a piece of the original ancient land, it radius km, the north is slightly missing. Earlier Ma, continent began to split. Fifteen multi-dimensional diagrams [1—3] for basic and ultrabasic rocks, based on log-ratio transformations, were used to decipher tectonic setting for two case studies of Borborema province, NE Brazil.

The origin of magmas in the western part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt W-MVB was constrained from tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams under the assumption that the magmas originated from different tectonic settings are distinguishable from differences in their chemical compositions. For the W-MVB, the diagrams for basic rocks generally indicate a continental rift setting whereas those for intermediate and acid rocks show either an arc or a transitional arc to rift setting but with relatively low total percent probability values.

This method allows computing the stress field only with a very limited spectral resolution. To overcome this problem, we apply a new method of computing the sub-crustal stress components based on utilizing the stress function with a subsequent numerical differentiation. This method increases the degree-dependent convergence domain of the asymptotically-convergent series and consequently allows evaluating the stress components to a higher spectral resolution compatible with currently available global crustal models.

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The crustal thickness and the sub-crustal stress are then determined directly from gravity and seismic crustal structure models. The numerical result reveals that the largest intensity of the sub-crustal stress occurs mainly along seismically active convergent tectonic plate boundaries, particularly along oceanic subduction zones and continent-to-continent collision zones. Inspired by the principle of wavelet analysis and blind signal separation in denoising, this paper presents a one-dimensional blind-wavelet algorithm. Some corresponding parameters of the blind-wavelet algorithm are discussed.

In this paper, the blind-wavelet algorithm contains the following three main steps. Firstly, the multi-channel seismic signals are decomposed into multi-level wavelet, the scale coefficients and the multi-level wavelet coefficients can be obtained, then, the multi-level wavelet coefficients are processed by soft threshold method.

Secondly, all the scale coefficients and the same depth wavelet coefficients of the signals are decomposed by the blind source separation, and the sequences of the decomposed signals can be correctly reflected through an appropriate method. Finally, the source signals are estimated via signal reconstruction.

The results show that the organic combination of blind source separation and wavelet analysis the blind-wavelet algorithm can effectively eliminate the noise of the deep metal ores seismic data, it meets the requirements of the high resolution and fidelity after the denoising in the deep metal ores seismic exploration. The results of this research demonstrate that the blind-wavelet algorithm is quite fit for two adjacent channel signals processing of metal ore deposits seismic data denoising.

It is shown that application of the blind-wavelet algorithm to seismic data processing is effective. The definition and arithmetic including add-subtract, bracket multiplication and Hadamard products of N-dimensional matrices are studied and proved. The cubic matrices are a special case of N-dimensional matrices.

The multi-dimensional data are expressed more brief and facility in theoretical analysis by the method of N-dimensional matrices. A geological example is given to illustrate the method and procedure of N-dimensional matrices in geological application. The method of N-dimensional matrices are considered a good tool in exploration and forecast. Shock-fragmentation of the Ries impact crater forms characteristic and complex fracture patterns from micro- to kilometre-scale.

Outside the crater rim, prominent fractures are mainly vertical to sub-vertical, either in radial or tangential orientation to the crater. The traces of radial fractures from various outcrops around the Ries consistently point towards impact centre and, consequently, represent an excellent tool for locating the crater centre. The presence of prominent fractures in numerous outcrops outside the Ries crater indicates that impact-induced brittle deformation reaches as far as 70 km away from the crater centre.

Time series analyses of fracture frequency reveals regularly spaced, ca. This periodicity of increased fragmentation appears typical of impact fragmentation.

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The cyclic repetition of intensely fractured zones and their variations with distance are most likely the results of the interaction of rapidly evolving impact-induced shock waves. This research aims at studying the vertical distribution modes of geochemical elements in the covering layer above a deposit. Firstly, since the grain grades as attributes in a panel dataset are in orders, we regarded this dataset as a new type one and named it as Ordered-Attributes Panel Data OAPD. Secondly, the non-parametric Friedman test was used to explore the correlation of the contents of the elements with both the distancefrom the ore and the grain grade separately.

Then, varying coefficient-models were applied to the 22 elements to get the variation modes of the regression coefficients, reflecting the change rates of the contents with respect to the grain grades. At last, the variation modes were sketched and classified. The Sewell consists of NE-SW to nearly E-W trending flat topped mounts with intervening valleys with a more steeper SE slope than the NW due to the presence of boundary faults as indicated by the profiles studies.

The subvolcanic textured rock is rhyolitic in composition with additional mineral phases of calcite, calcite veins, Fe-oxide veins, albite An , apatite and titanite which are identified as part of hydrothermal veins. Furthermore, this subvolcanic texture indicate these hydrothermal veins were emplaced at subcrustal level for sometime followed by migration to the surface along the crustal scale faults associated with the Sewell Rise. Fe-Mnmicronodules, Fe The studies on the basis of the seismic records of seismic events in Uttaranchal a review of the events have been done and a probability of the earthquake has been workout in the part of Garhwal-Kumaun-Himalaya in Uttaranchal.

In the southern part of outer Himalaya thrust zones are expected to produce a long term probabilities of large earthquakes of magnitude more than 6, on Richter scale which have on and average 5 to 20 mm reactivation and neotectonic upliftments along the shear zones. These zones have estimated to have future probabilities of earthquakes on these areas which are based on the historical seismic records, the long term slip rate and the displacement caused by the previous seismic events.

The historical records of seismic events in these part of the Himalaya have the earthquake intensities varying from 4 to 6. The Kangra earthquake was recorded more than 7. Dams are the hydraulic structures built with impervious material across river which provides water impounding for various purposes. These structures are constructed on rock formation so proper stress deformation analysis should be done.

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So it is important to analyze different stress concentration which results into undesirable deformation in dam foundation system. The paper presents analysis of dam foundation system under the shear seam using explicit finite difference method. Seams not only change the physical properties of the rock in and near the discontinuous zones, but they substantially affect the distribution of stresses and the overall stability of dam foundation. With different inclination of seam, stress deformation is concluded in the dam foundation system.

The different parageneses of pelitic rocks containing chlorite, muscovite, biotite, garnet, staurolite, kyanite, sillimanite, k-feldspar and plagioclase show various texture resulting by the continuous and discontinuous reactions in the different zones. White mica which is the solid solution between muscovite and phengite is the commonest mineral within the lower grade; garnet is almandine rich showing normal zoning in the lower part of the MCT and in the upper parts shows reverse zoning. In the lower grade rocks the oriented chlorite, mica grains and rolled garnet formed syntectonically and after succeeded by cross cutting mica, chlorite and idioblastic garnet.

Different models have been proposed to explain inverted metamorphism but recently the channel flow model which defines a flow of a weak crustal layer in between relatively rigid yet deformable crustal slab is most appropriate. If the channel flow is operating at the same time of focused denudation, this can result in exhumation of channel material within a narrow, nearly symmetric zone.

Sapphirine-spinel-bearing granulite occurs as lenticular bodies in khondalites, leptynites and calc-granulites. Textural relations such as presence of corroded blebs of biotite within garnet and orthopyroxene, resorbed hornblende within pyroxenes, and coarse prisms of sillimanite presumably pseudomorphs after kyanite, provide evidence of either, an earlier episode of upper amphibolites facies metamorphism or represent relict of a single prograde event leading to granulites facies metamorphism.

The prograde path was followed by peak metamorphism at a temperature of c. The sequence of reactions as deduced from the corona and symplectites assemblages, together with petrogenetic grid and pseudosection considerations, records a clockwise P-T evolution. The spatial distribution of seismic site coefficients at Guwahati is presented in this article. Estimated site coefficients consider different site types in the city and several level of ground shaking consider average of probable seismic event.

The evaluation of site coefficients is based on the standard penetration test data at boreholes distributed over the city. Equivalent linear one dimensional site response analyses are performed to predict the site amplification and to determine the spectral acceleration response. Due to the unavailability of recorded ground motion data for the region, synthetic ground motions simulated at the bedrock level for the city corresponding to several combinations of magnitude M w and source-to-site distance R are used as input excitation.

Simulated synthetic ground motion data with varying levels of excitation have been used to take care of the uncertainties in the input ground motions.

The analyses depict the modification of the seismic ground motion due to the presence of soil overlying the bedrock. In western region of Zhejiang province, structure and magma activity occur frequently; Proterozoic eon and Paleozoic era of copper mineralization favorable layers are distributed in those regions; the NE orientation deep fractures develop and move; the Shengong period and early Yanshanian of magma activity closely relate to mineralization.

There are well metallogenic conditions of Au, Ag and Cu minerals in the regions according to the long-term and complex geological evolution, tectonism and magmatic activity. Based on analysis of tectonism, stratum, rock, fractures and minerogenetic map in the region, the geological variables are obtained by the multi-source information of geological abnormity, minerogenetic abnormity using MAPGIS and MORPAS software.

The five minerogenetic prospect regions of Cu deposits are obtained by weightsof evidence modeling, which show that weight of evidence method is a good tool for minerogenic prediction. The present study emphasizes the application of fuzzy operators in landslide susceptibility mapping along Yercaud ghat road section in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Yercaud is one of the important hill stations and tourist spot in Tamil Nadu. In recent times, it faces frequent landslide occurrences. There is a urgent need for detail study of landslides along the ghat road to prevent further slope failure.

The study has been conducted through integrated remote sensing, GIS and field investigations. The existing landslide locations were collected from previous study and verified in the field. The slope gradient, slope aspect, relief, lithology, land cover, geomorphology, proximity to road, proximity to drainage and proximity to lineament were analyzed with the help of Survey of India topo map, published geology map and satellite data. The relationship between various causative factors with past landslide locations were compared using frequency ratio method.

These frequency ratio values were normalized to get fuzzy membership values between 0 to 1. The parameter maps with membership values were integrated using fuzzy algebraic product, fuzzy algebraic sum and fuzzy gamma operators to get final landslide susceptibility map. The produced map was verified by comparing with existing landslide locations for calculating prediction accuracy.

A benchmark synthetic fractured reservoir dataset is built as an initial step towards evaluating methodologies for using deterministic Discrete Fracture Network DFN models from an explored area in predicting performance in relatively underexplored adjacent zones. In this exercise we create a robust synthetic dataset comprising about seven million grid cells with details on geology, geomechanical and geophysical properties.

The entire reservoir is populated with relevant facies properties, porosity and permeability.

Geostatistics for Natural Resources Characterization. Part 1

Fracture intensity and orientation distributions are computed from geomechanical constraints. This region is populated with fractures invoking a DFN model by talking into account fracture intensity and orientations from geomechanical constraints. The influence of these fractures on seismic responses is evaluated based on computation of the effective elastic stiffness tensor.

The seismic response can then be used as templates to interpret the characteristics of the fractured reservoir in the unexplored areas. Based on the geological background of Tonglushan region, and combining with the metallogenic theory, this paper reorganizes and analyzes the regional metallogenic model systematically, then determines the ore-prospecting criteria respectively from the strata, magmatic rocks, structure and wall rock alteration.

Then guided by prospecting model, the paper selects favorable ore-forming strata, fault buffer, center symmetrical, fault density, tectonic intersection, the geochemical information etc. Using the MICROMINE software as a platform and combining with the concealed geological body to build the digital geological model of surrounding areas, which is realize the 3D visualization, and viewers can watch the predictive result from different angles and positions.

Through materialization of ore block model, then the materialization of each cell line interpolation and assignment, the final weight is obtained by 3D evidence model. By the primary halo zoning features of ore deposits, indicator of the geochemical exploration, forecasts the deep concealed ore, and realizes the geological and geochemical comprehensive prediction; Finally Marks out three of metallogenic prospect.

The prospective areas show that the study area has a good potential for prospecting minerals and the method of ore prediction is very effective. The application of the analysis method which is quantitative information of structures as new prospecting variables achieve a new breakthrough in 3D prospecting minerals. The problems correlation of data of the Kola Superdeep Borehole was hampered by an imbalance between extremely detailed borehole studies and more piecemeal observations on the day surface in the Pechenga ore district.

The rock density and anisotropy in Vp, geological, gravity, and geochronological data were employed for the formalization and correlation of the borehole section and the reference profile on the day surface using computer-based technologies. The integrated deep geodynamic model accounts for the modern structure of the Pechenga ore districts to a depth of 15 km and entails a new interpretation of its geological boundaries, development stages, and metallogeny. Considering the multivariable deposits that consist of various attributes that are frequently spatially correlated, the uncertainty associated with the grade-tonnage curves is assessed through the joint conditional simulation techniques.

The methodology for joint simulation is three-fold: 1 MAF is used to transform the attributes to non-correlated factors; 2 the variograms for each MAF are computed and modelled; 3 the independent MAFs are individually simulated and back-transformed to the original data space.

The methodology is demonstrated in an iron ore deposit in Western Australia, where the attributes of an iron ore deposit are successfully decorrelated and simulated independently. The grade-tonnage curves for each realisation are plotted and compared with the generated one by the kriging estimate. The MAF approach proves itself to be an efficient method for joint simulation of multivariable deposits. For comprehensive study of heavy mineral placers the modern methods areneeded for integrated analysis.

The generalization of methodological approaches and techniques has done for two kinds of modeling, widely used in the study of placers. The digital structural-lithological DSL modeling [1] is based on the principles of authoring partition for geological objects using a wide range of lithological, geochemical, metallogenic properties and other features. DSL-model is built as the result of computer processing of the target database, prepared on the basis of these principles.

Methodology of geological-dynamic modeling of heavy mineral placers [2] is based on the study of the dynamic mechanisms of the main stages of placer formation processes - from the mobilization in the load sources of placer-forming material to deposition in the terminal sedimentary basin. Technology of hybrid expert systems [3] is the best for development of expert systems based on digital models for target prediction and evaluation of placer objects, because it permits the using of different knowledge about the object of study in various forms, allowing their automatically applying during expert system operation.

The experimental sample model shave shown a high level oftargetfunction. For the demands of geometallurgy a vast amount of data in multifaceted shape is needed. There are high resolution images from the MLA, data tables with information on the chemistry of some mineral phases, statistics on the distribution of the grain size, and so on. This data needs to be stored in a database, which reflects the often hierarchical structure of it and is flexible enough to be extended with almost any potential occurring information. We provide a MySQL template for such a database.

Finding the desired data there can be a tough task, since queries might be highly complex and confusing. Therefore, we developed an easy accessible R interface for accessing this database. Traditional mineral resources prospecting and information extraction method cannot satisfy the complexity of geological and multi-stages of ore-forming processes.

In this paper, empirical model decomposition EMD and independent component analysis ICA are applied to separate and reconstruct magnetic data so as to extract the signals from different sources. Firstly, original magnetic data is sifted to get intrinsic mode functions IMFs from high to low frequency. Finally, nine IMFs and three ICs are obtained by the combining method that is used to process magnetic data of Gobi desert coverage in Eastern Tianshan.

IC1 discriminates igneous rocks, and may be related to magmatic intrusion, IC2 tracks the distribution of plates and may be related to plate subduction, IC3 indicates the basite-ultrabasic rocks which are distributed in the middle of area and may be related to crustal thickening. Based on the professional knowledge analysis of city engineering geology, hydrogeology, it selects geology, road, explored underground resources and so on, as the affecting factors to evaluate the urban geological body.

By using a 3D software platform, this paper discusses the comprehensive modeling details for these factors even from non-spatial entities. The case of Beijing City shows this method can effectively describe the spatial and non-spatial properties for the city geological body. A constant value of the Moho density contrast is often assumed in methods for a gravimetric determination of the Moho geometry.

This assumption might be sufficient in some regional studies. In global studies, however, this assumption is not reasonable due to the fact that the Moho density contrast vary significantly. Large errors then can be expected in the Moho geometry determined globally from gravity data. In this study we utilize a generalized compensation scheme based on variable depth and density of compensation. The Moho depths are determined based on assuming the variable Moho density contrast.

We demonstrate that this assumption instead of a uniform model significantly improves the agreement between the global gravimetric and seismic Moho models; the RMS fit of the gravimetric result with the CRUST1. Transport of colloids in fractured media has gained a considerable importance in recent years, mainly in the field of chemical pollutant transport and in nuclear waste management in groundwater system.

The major reason being, colloids assist in migration of radionuclides through fractured rocks. Field studies and experiments have shown that natural fractures have apertures which are complex in geometry and vary spatially. An attempt has been made to numerical model the colloidal transport in a single fracture-matrix system to investigate the mobility of colloids in the presence of variable fracture apertures. To capture the effect of variation of fracture aperture, two different geometrical distributions logarithmic and sinusoidal, have been developed to generate the variations of fracture aperture.

Analysis for both linear and nonlinear sorption isotherm cases has been carried out. The nonlinear sorption isotherm has been carried out given by Langmuir and Freundlich of isotherms. Cauchy type of boundary condition is applied at the fracture inlet to better represent the field scenario. The results indicate that colloidal migration in fracture and rock matrix is sensitive to fracture aperture variation and the parallel plate model exaggerates the colloid concentration in fracture.

Further the results also suggest that the type of colloid source condition has a profound effect on the migration of the colloids in fracture and rock matrix. However, spatiotemporal modelling of SSI a non-linear process from Earth observation data is unfortunately not straightforward. In this paper, we propose an MCMC particle filter approach that combines satellite images and in situ data for space-time-referenced SSI modelling.

We propose original observation and transition functions taking advantage of the characteristics of the involved types of data. A simulation study of solar irradiance is conducted in parallel with this method and a map of SSI potential in French Guiana for the year is provided. Basin and petroleum system modeling allows geoscientists to examine the dynamics of sedimentary basins and their associated fluids to determine if past conditions were suitable for hydrocarbons to fill potential reservoirs and be preserved there. Commonly geological models are created using simple assumptions about the superposition of sedimentary layers during deposition.

However, for prograding sequences foreland basin and passive margin settings in particular, this results in simplistic models with limited geological validation of thicknesses or facies distribution. Stratigraphic forward modeling is a quantitative approach to create a geological model by simulating dynamic sedimentary processes, such as erosion, sediment transport, and deposition, while maintaining mass balance. By suitably varying parameters that represent paleogeographic conditions such as sea level, sediment input, and major tectonic events stratigraphic forward modeling can generate a realistic three-dimensional model and predict the distribution of sediments and their properties.

The distribution of seismic activity in the area of Pacific volcanic ring. The mathematical model of its seismic activity cost based Burridge Knopoff Burridge-Knopoff. Discuss the results of numerical experiments. We evaluated the performance of thirteen single extreme outlier statistical discordancy tests Grubbs-type N1, N2, N4; Dixon-type N7, N8, N9, N10; and high-order moment statistics skewness N14 and kurtosis N15 using highly precise and accurate Monte Carlo simulations for 20,, replications and independent simulation experiments.

Our results indicate that the Dixon tests perform less well than the Grubbs-type, skewness, and kurtosis tests. Maximum of the utilization of sustainable and recyclable energy sources could be an effective way for the reduction of carbon dioxide emission, which is mainly caused by energy consumption. In this study, the characterization of the heat stored underground and the analysis of the deep geothermal potential was performed for different geothermal systems based on various geology structures, fault zones and volcanic zones, including Hokkaido, Northeast of Honshu, Center of Honshu, Southwest of Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu geothermal systems.

Geothermal energy potential maps were firstly produced at different depth intervals using two dimension kriging interpolations. The temperature distribution was then modeled in the three dimension to a depth of 1 km from the surface underground. In addition, the dataset from multi-sourced well loggings was used to improve the accuracy of 3D model and furthermore, predict the geothermal properties.

Finally, based on the analysis of the deep geothermal potentials, location of high potential areas where further exploration and future exploitation of the geothermal resources is feasible in Japan were detected. The standard geostatistical models, both linear and nonlinear, require the data to be stationary, which is very rare in reality. The changing of means and variances, and spatial covariance structure are evident in the real life data.

The so called global non-stationarity over a spatial field is captured by a model which is considered to be locally stationary but globally non-stationary. The proposed model is simultaneously defined everywhere in the concerned domain not only in the defined areas, but again the model behaves like a local stationary process in small areas. For this purpose, the smoothly varying local multivariate spatial distribution function has been derived by weighting all the data values in the spatial field using kernel function and consequently represented by Hermite polynomial expansions. The locally varying spatial covariance structure is modeled by a local covariance function defined by semi-variance parameters estimated experimentally by the local samples present in the local stationary region.

The local recoverable reserve is estimated by calculating conditional cumulative distribution function using nonlinear geostatistical techniques such as disjunctive kriging and multi Gaussian kriging. The proposed method has been applied in an Indian beach sand deposit for local recoverable reserve estimation. An appropriate support effect model has been incorporated for designing this estimation algorithm. The impacts of support effect and nonstationarity in terms of local recoverable reserve are analyzed for the deposit.

This spatio-temporal data are then interrogated with respect to climatic timings and changes in crop, livestock and farm management, across the NWFP. Complementary data sets are also found via spatial field surveys, remote sensing and greenhouse gas studies. This study focuses on one such field survey, consisting of soils data at sites. We spatially explore this data using a geographically weighted principal components analysis, where we provide a novel adaptation of the technique to deal with the distinctly partitioned nature of the data, which is collected across 20 fields, spread over the 15 catchments.

The climate impact studies in hydrology often rely on climate change information at fine spatial resolution. Downscaling is a practice for obtaining local-scale hydrological variables from regional-scale atmospheric data that are provided by General Circulation Models. Among two downscaling methods, Statistical Downscaling is taken into account, as it offers less computational work as compared to Dynamic Downscaling and also provides us with a platform to use ensemble GCM outputs.

A comparison is made between the models in this study. Flood forecasting is considered as an important component of non structural measures for flood management planning. Hence it is of immense importance to accurately estimate the flood hydrographs resulting from storm events for all the tributaries of a river system which causes flood. In the present study simulation of precipitation-runoff process for the Tel Sub basin of Mahanadi Basin is carried out and various important parameters of the model are calibrated.

It is pertinent to mention that Tel catchment area km2 is an important tributary of Mahanadi system and contributes significantly to the flood peak at the delta head of Mahanadi at Munduli. Historical flood records show that the River Tel alone contributed Using the model and available data some important model parameters which significantly affect precipitation-runoff process are calibrated considering the storm event of 29 August to 4 September Further, using the calibrated model parameters, the model is run to estimate the flood peak and time to peak for the storm event of Sept flood 14 Sep to 25 Sep and July flood 14 July to 25 July The observed and computed values of flood peaks and time to peaks are compared and it is seen that there is a close agreement between the observed and computed values.

The result shows that there is an error of 4. A simulation study using SWAT hydrological model has been carried out to evaluate the impacts of changing cropping pattern and agricultural expansions on overland flow in Penganga Sub watershed, Maharashtra. Remote sensing data combined with ground-truthing and extrapolation of pixel signatures were done for generation of spatial crop inventory for the years , , and The crop inventory analysis showed a significant change in the cropping pattern over the decades.

Less water intensive crops like Jowar, Tuarand Gram were heavily replaced by water intensive crops like Cotton and Wheat. These four different scenarios were modeled without hydrological structuresunder constant climatic conditions of Under similar climatic conditions the consecutive scenarios showed gradual decline in runoff. The study showed that the shift in cropping pattern to water intensive crops reduced surface flow.

This calls for appropriate crop combination for better utilization of available water. The near surface or depth to the first occurrence of groundwater is vital in evaluating liquefaction initiation and therefore a liquefaction loss model. If groundwater is below a susceptible layer, that layer is unlikely to liquefy. This study will discuss the challenges in modeling near surface groundwater depths over a large region, using the Canterbury region of New Zealand as an example, and its importance to loss estimation relative to liquefaction hazard.

Estimating the depth to near surface groundwater is an emerging discipline that benefits from geostatistics and hydrology. While accounting for spatial randomness in the groundwater depth, we develop a site-specific mean trend model assimilating secondary datasets correlated with the primary variable and process it through the Kriging system. Secondary datasets considered are a continuous map of distance to a water body DWB and ground surface elevation through a digital elevation model DEM.

Resulting estimation improves upon a Kriging method not incorporating the secondary information Mean Square Error reduction ranges from The estimation of the groundwater depth at unsampled locations leads to enhanced understanding of liquefaction over a region and thus of spatial distribution in the loss uncertainty. The findings of this study would be of great help to investigate the importance of the location of groundwater monitoring networks near concentrations of building exposures.