Very little religious common ground, therefore, exists between Chinese and Tibetans. Relationships were never formed between any Tibetan lamas and any actually Chinese emperors during the years of the Tang, Sung and Ming dynasties combined. Most recently, the Nationalist Chinese Kuomintang government set no foot in Tibet, from until its departure fromChina in And, so, the first Chinese rulers to have any political role in Tibet have been the Chinese Communists, since Naturally there is no question of the Communists sharing any common religious ground with the Tibetans, who are so devoted to Buddhism.
A sketch map of Tibet with its people in their traditional dresses in different regions of Tibet before Shrine for Tibet The Alice S. Anthropology of Tibet and Himalaya Anthropology of Tibet and the Himalaya Author s : Bramble, Charles and Martin Brauen Synopsis: Academic papers and essays by various scholars from an international seminar on the anthropology of Tibet and the Himalaya.
Tibetan Arts Author s : Heller, Amy Synopsis: A treasure trove of art and artifacts from to AD, which illustrate the remarkable art historical development of Tibet. Ancient Tibet Author s : Yeshe De Project Synopsis: An excellent survey of Tibet and the geology, and early history of its people, with chapters on the rise of the Himalayas and the development of plant and animal life; and the growth of Tibetan tribes to the flowering of the empire in the 8th and 9th centuries.
The contents include: the Dalai Lamas and the Origins of Reincarnate Gould, and Hugh E. Author s : Diemberger, Maria Antonia Siron Synopsis: Spellbinding color images from the author's fascinating and varied journey through Tibet, ranging from visits to nomads in remote highlands to the cyber cafe in Lhasa. By Hugh Richardson This important work by Snellgrove and Richardson remains one of the very best surveys of the Tibetans, their religion, and their rich and complex culture.
Moreover, it continues to have great relevance today, as we witness the ongoing destruction of this culture at the hands of the occupying Chinese population. In Snellgrove's, words, the book serves to "keep in public view the clear historical right of the Tibetan people to selfdetermination. House of Turquoise Roof Synopsis: A frank and revealing autobiography of a Tibetan noblewoman, recalling life in Lhasa before the Chinese invasion. The beauty and diversity of the Tibetan plateau is staggering: from Mount Everest to the world's deepest gorge, from tropical jungles to artic-like tundra, from trees twenty feet in diameter to vast herds and solitary specimens of some of the least well-known animals on the planet.
Certain photographs, such as those of a newborn Tibetan antelope or the elusive red ghoral, are among the few ever taken of these subjects. Nyatri Tsenpo ushered in a period of glory for Tibet. He built Yumbulagang, the first house in Tibet which still exists in central Tibet. Songtsen Gampo ascended to the throne at the age of thirteen. During the reign of King Songtsen Gampo, Tibet emerged as a unified state and became a great military power, with its armies marching across Central Asia.
Thus, the King of Nepal and the Emperor of China offered their daughters in marriage to the Tibetan king. The marriages with the Nepalese and Chinese princesses have been given prominence in the religious story of Tibet because of their contributions to Buddhism. Sontsen Gampo promoted Buddhism in Tibet and sent seventeen Tibetan students to India to master its languages and, through them, Buddhism. Thonmi Sambhota, the most famous of these students, mastered Sanskrit and was introduced to Buddhism. He then returned to Tibet and, on the basis of the Brahmi and Gupta scripts, devised the Tibetan alphabet and grammar.
For the first time in the history of Tibet he was then able to translate several important Buddhist texts from Sanskrit into Tibetan. He drew up ten moral principles and sixteen rules of public conduct. The border between Tibet and China was defined. Trisong Detsen — A. He ascended the throne at the age of fourteen. As the Chinese emperor had fled, the Tibetans appointed a new emperor. This significant victory has been recorded for posterity on the Shol Doring stone pillar in Lhasa.
Eager to know if Tibetans were capable of becoming good monks, the king selected seven intelligent men to be used as a trial group. These neophytes were trained by Santiraksita, and they became the first monks in Tibet. The trail group was so successful that many Tibetans then became monks. A school for the study of Sanskrit was established at Samye and large numbers of Buddhist texts from India were translated into the Tibetan language. Atisha, a celebrated Indian pandit who visited Samye in the eleventh century, wrote that he had never seen such an extensive and thorough system of translation of Buddhist texts, even in India.
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The king also declared Buddhism as the official religion of Tibet. Tri Ralpachen — A. Tri Ralpachen came to power in During his reign the Tibetan armies won many victories and in a piece treaty was concluded with China. Tri Ralpachen also introduced a new system of weights and measures based on the Indian model. From around to CE, Tibet was in a phase of expansion during which it absorbed the state of Zhang-zhung, and then substantial Chinese, Nepalese and other territories surrounding it. It was near the end of this period, under royal patronage, the first Tibetan Buddhist monastery was founded at Samye.
According to legend, local deities and demons opposed to the introduction of Buddhism destroyed every night what was being built during the day. The king consulted Santarakshita, the Indian monastic who was to be the first abbot of the new monastery. He advised that the great tantric mahasiddha great adept , Padmasambhava, be summoned from India to tame local deities and bind them to the service of Buddha-dharma. Padmasambhava's journey through the Tibetan landscape subduing and binding a succession of named deities at specific places forms the core of his life activity.
These events, mythical, legendary or historical have consequences for practitioners of Tibetan Buddhism today. That is the most important aspect of his work, and the reason why he is referred to as Guru Rinpoche, being regarded as the "second Buddha. Lang Darma was said to have hidden horns and a black tongue. Lang Darma would hide his horns under his hair which was arranged in two plaits.
Lang Darma and two of his ministers promulgated laws to destroy Buddhism in Tibet.
Well known monks were executed for refusing to abandon their Buddhist faith. The Indian pandits and scholars, finding themselves treated with little or no respect, returned to their native land. Lang Darma and his ministers succeeded destroying Buddhism in central Tibet, but not in other parts of the country where their authority could not be imposed. By religious persecutions had become so severe in central Tibet that Lhalung Palgye Dorje, a monk set out for Lhasa from Yerpa, shot an arrow assassinating Lang Darma. The assassination of Lang Darma in led to the decentralization of royal authority in Tibet.
The long lineage of royalty came to an end collapsing the Tibetan kingdom. This marked the first schism in the royal line and central authority. Therefore, the dates and mark the period of decentralized control in Tibet, during which the country consisted of many small hegemonies like the very many small kingdoms in ancient India. After the reign of the tsenpos or kings, Tibet was ruled by the lineage of Sakyapas, one of the four major religious sects of Tibetan Buddhism.
The first occasion earned him the spiritual and temporal authority over thirteen districts Trikor Chusum of central Tibet. Thus, the Lamas and Patrons relationship began. Furthermore, he established military posts for the protection of travelers and pilgrims and installed preventive measures for epidemics.
He issued a book of instructions on border defense and tax collection. Tsepon W. Tibet gained its independence from the Mongols in the time of Changchup Gyaltsen and China gained its in under the leadership of Chu Yuan-chang. The allegation that the Chinese Emperors of the Ming Dynasty inherited claim to Tibet from their Mongol predecessors is not valid. The Mongols, in building an empire, first gained control over part of Tibet and then, after many years, finally conquered China. From to , Tibet was successively ruled by Lamas from the Phagmo Drupa lineage, followed by Rinpung and theTsangpa kings from to The reign of the Tsangpa kings was followed by the Dalai Lamas.
In order to trace the origin of the Dalai Lamas and their emergence to power, it is necessary to go back to the 15th century. The lama, who became known posthumously as the first Dalai Lama was Gedun Drupa, he was born in He was followed by Gedun Gyatso in and then Sonam Gyatso in Sonam Gyatso began a program of religious instructions for the Khan and his people.
Altan Khan was converted to Buddhism and the Khan made important religious proclamation to his people. When Sonam Choephel, the chief attendant of the Fourth Dalai Lama heard of the exceptional abilities of the ChongGya boy, he paid a visit to the child and showed him articles belonging to the previous Dalai Lama.
The boy at once said those belonged to him. However, all this uncertainty was laid to rest by Gushri Khan; the chief of the Qoshot Mongols. Gushri Khan completed the unification of Tibet in and offered the entire three provinces of Tibet to the Dalai Lama to rule. The Dalai Lama proclaimed Lhasa as the capital for the new government.
He promulgated laws for public conduct, appointed governors to different districts and chose his ministers. In , the Dalai Lama began the construction of the Potala Palace where the ruins of the palace Tritse Marpo built in the 7th century, by the 33rd King Songtsen Gampo. The Potala became the seat of the independent Tibet up to the Chinese occupation of Tibet in The Dalai Lama sent his representatives to many towns in Kham areas: Gyarong, Golog, Tachienlu, Gyalthang, Chating and Jun to reduce heavy taxation, mediate local feuds, establish new monasteries and to resettle areas that had been abandoned by the people.
The similar steps were also taken in the Central Tibet and other parts of Tibet. Gakhok, Lingtsang, Lhathok and Nangchen, all in eastern Kham to take a census of the population and collect taxes from the landholders. There were 56 books on the tax collection of revenue in these districts. The Dalai Lama was a very influential person. Through his religious authority the Dalai Lama influenced in the political affairs of Mongols and neighboring countries including China.
When he reached the Chinese province of Ningxia, he was greeted by the emperor's minister and military commander who came with three thousand cavalry to escort the Tibetan leader. The emperor himself traveled from Peking and greeted him at a place called Kothor. When the emperor officially met the Dalai Lama, the two of then exchanged titles. In , the Dalai Lama returned to Tibet. The Fifth Dalai Lama was a great scholar, well versed in Sanskrit.
He also established two educational institutions, one for lay officials and another for monk officials, where they were taught Mongolian, Sanskrit, astrology, poetry, and administration. He was a man of few words, but what he said carried conviction and influenced rulers beyond the borders of Tibet. Thupten Jampaling Monastery, which was founded in Lithang by the Third Dalai Lama, was astonished by the wonders of the child and also the state oracles of Lithang had predicted that the newborn child would be the reincarnation of the late Dalai Lama. However due to the turbulent political situation, they could not escort the new Dalai Lama to Lhasa, and he was taken to Kumbum monastery, where he was ordained by Ngawang Lobsang Tenpai Gyaltsen.
In , he was enthroned in the Potala Palace and he took the novice vows of monkhood from Panchen Lobsang Yeshi, who gave him the name Kelsang Gyatso. In , during the auspicious month of Saka Dawa, he took the Gelong vows full ordination from Panchen Rinpoche. He sought the tutor of Panchen Lobsang Yeshi, the Abbot of Gyumey monastery and the Abbot of Shalu monastery, Ngawang Yonten, from whom he studied the entire major Buddhist philosophical treatises and became a master in both the sutra and tantra. In , at the age of forty-three, he constituted the 'Kashag' or council of ministers to administer the Tibetan government and then abolished the post of Desi, as it placed too much power in one man's hand.
The Dalai Lama became the spiritual and political leader of Tibet. The Seventh Dalai Lama was a great scholar and wrote many books, especially on the tantra. He was also a great poet who, unlike Tsangyang Gyatso, dwelt on spiritual themes. His simple and unblemished life won him the hearts of all Tibetans. He died in In , he was recognized as the reincarnation of the 12th Dalai Lama following predictions from the State Oracle Nechung and other auspicious signs at his birthplace.
Subsequently a convention was signed between Tibet and British India. In , the Manchu Dynasty was overthrown by the revolution led by Sun Yat-sen and the Tibetans took this opportunity to expel the remnant Manchu forces from Tibet. The Dalai Lama introduced the first currencies and coins in Tibet. He also established the first post office in Tibet. In , he strengthened the Tibetan military force by organizing special training. In , he established a police headquarter in Lhasa and the first English school in Gyaltse Gyangtse. He sent four As a result the Dalai Lama issued a formal proclamation declaring Tibetan independence.
Lord Buddha, from the glorious country of India, prophesied that the reincarnations of Avalokiteshvara, through successive rulers from the early religious kings to the present day, would look after the welfare of Tibet. A few years ago, the Chinese authorities in Szechuan and Yunnan endeavored to colonize our territory. They brought large numbers of troops into central Tibet on the pretext of policing the trade marts. I, therefore, left Lhasa with my ministers for the Indo-Tibetan border, hoping to clarify to the Manchu emperor by wire that the existing relationship between Tibet and China had been that of patron and priest and had not been based on the subordination of one to the other.
There was no other choice for me but to cross the border, because Chinese troops were following with the intention of taking me alive or dead. On my arrival in India, I dispatched several telegrams to the Emperor; but his reply to my demands was delayed by corrupt officials at Peking. Meanwhile, the Manchu empire collapsed. The Tibetans were encouraged to expel the Chinese from central Tibet. I, too, returned safely to my rightful and sacred country, and I am now in the course of driving out the remnants of Chinese troops from DoKham in Eastern Tibet. Now, the Chinese intention of colonizing Tibet under the patron-priest relationship has faded like a rainbow in the sky.
Having once again achieved for ourselves a period of happiness and peace, I have now allotted to all of you the following duties to be carried out without negligence: 1. Peace and happiness in this world can only be maintained by preserving the faith of Buddhism. It is, therefore, essential to preserve all Buddhist institutions in Tibet, such as the. Jokhang temple and Ramoche in Lhasa, Samye, and Traduk in southern Tibet, and the three great monasteries, etc. The various Buddhist sects in Tibet should be kept in a distinct and pure form.
Buddhism should be taught, learned, and meditated upon properly. Some of the central government officials posted at Ngari Korsum in western Tibet, and Do Kham in eastern Tibet, are coercing their subject citizens to purchase commercial goods at high prices and have imposed transportation rights exceeding the limit permitted by the government. Houses, properties and lands belonging to subject citizens have been confiscated on the pretext of minor breaches of the law. Henceforth, such severe punishments are forbidden. Tibet is a country with rich natural resources; but it is not scientifically advanced like other lands.
We are a small, religious, and independent nation. To keep up with the rest of the world, we must defend our country. In view of past invasions by foreigners, our people may have to face certain difficulties, which they must disregard. To safeguard and maintain the independence of our country, one and all should voluntarily work hard. Our subject citizens residing near the borders should be alert and keep the government informed by special messenger of any suspicious developments. Our subjects must not create major clashes between two nations because of minor incidents.
Tibet, although thinly populated, is an extensive country. Some local officials and landholders are jealously obstructing other people from developing vacant lands, even though they are not doing so themselves. People with such intentions are enemies of the State and our progress. From now on, no one is allowed to obstruct anyone else from cultivating whatever vacant lands are available. Land taxes will not be collected until three years have passed; after that the land cultivator will have to pay taxes to the government and to the landlord every year, proportionate to the rent. The land will belong to the cultivator.
Your duties to the government and to the people will have been achieved when you have executed all that I have said here. This letter must be posted and proclaimed in every district of Tibet, and a copy kept in the records of the offices in every district.
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From the Potala Palace. Seal of the Dalai Lama. He was born on July 6, to a farming family in a small hamlet located in Taktser, Amdo, in northeastern Tibet. At the age of two the child, Lhamo Dhondup, was recognized as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso. Bodhisattvas have developed the exceptional attitude of striving for enlightenment for the sake of all living beings.
The Dalai Lama began his monastic education at the age of six. The curriculum consisted of five major and five minor subjects. The major subjects included logic, Tibetan art and culture, Sanskrit, medicine, and Buddhist philosophy which was further divided into five categories: Prajnaparimita, the perfection of wisdom; Madhyamika, the philosophy of the middle Way; Vinaya, the canon of monastic discipline; Abidharma, metaphysics; and Pramana, logic and epistemology.
The five minor subjects consisted of poetry, music and drama, astrology, calligraphy and phrasing, and synonyms. At 23, in he sat for his final examination in the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa, during the annual Monlam prayer Festival. He passed with honors and was awarded the Geshe Lharampa degree, the highest-level degree equivalent to a doctorate of Buddhist philosophy. The Dalai Lama was called upon to assume full political power on November 17, after China's invasion of Eastern Tibet in The Peking government invited the Dalai Lama to visit China in During the first meeting between the Dalai Lama and Mao Tsetung, Mao Tse-tung said to the Dalai Lama that it was the mission of China to bring progress to Tibet by developing its natural resources.
Further, the Chinese generals who had come to Lhasa were Chinese representatives who would help the Dalai. Lama and the Tibetan people. He also promised that the generals were not there to exercise any kind of authority over the Tibetan government or people. He advised the Dalai Lama how to become a leader of the people and how to listen to their suggestions.
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But of course, religion is poison. Tibet and Mongolia are both poisoned by it. The Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa in with hopes that Tibet and its people had been saved from the worst consequences of Chinese domination. The Dalai Lama also appealed to the United Nations to intervene on behalf of Tibetans regarding the worsening situation in Tibet.
But the General Assembly decided not to consider the question of Tibet. Tibet was left alone to face the rising Communist regime and in March , with the brutal suppression of the Tibetan national uprising in Lhasa by Chinese troops, the Dalai Lama was forced to escape into exile. Some 80, Tibetan refugees followed the Dalai Lama to India.
A full account of Tibet's history from its earliest civilisations up to the current Chinese occupation, written by an eminent scholar and former member of the Tibetan government. Portrait of a Dalai Lama The Life and Times of the Great Thirteenth Author s : Bell, Sir Charles Synopsis: A compelling and masterly picture of the 13th Dalai Lama painted by the diplomat whose long friendship with the Great 13th qualified him more than any other to write this biography. It is the vivid story of a powerful yet humble man who worked tirelessly to prevent the oncoming tragedy he foresaw.
His rule would prove to be more strong, more radical and more complete than that of any Dalai Lama since the Great Fifth. Mullin, foreword by H. In this book, Mullin offers the life stories of all fourteen Dalai Lamas in one volume. With colour illustrations. Heinrich Harrer, already a famous mountaineer and Olympic ski champion, was climbing in the Himalayas when the Second World War broke out.
With great difficulty he succeeded in crossing into Tibet and the then forbidden city of Lhasa, one of the first Westerners to lay eyes on this holiest of places. For seven years Harrer learned the language and acquired a greater understanding of the Tibetans and their unique way of life. A travel-writing landmark, this is a stunning story of incredible courage and self-reliance set against the backdrop of a mysterious and magnificent culture. Now a movie starring Brad Pitt. The Tibetan Government strongly reacted to the Peking announcement by stating that Tibet had never been a part of China.
Moreover, there was no need to liberate Tibet from foreign imperialists as no foreign power controlled Tibet. The Chinese forces unexpectedly attacked eastern Tibet, Kham, now a part Sichuan Province from eight different directions on October 7, and later northeastern Tibet, Amdo, northeastern Tibet now a part of Qinghai Province. The Tibetan army aided by Khampa volunteers fought back the Chinese army for a short time and in a few instances with some success.
But the Tibetan army was hopelessly outnumbered and outmatched. Once in Chinese hands, the Tibetan Delegation fell prey to Chinese pressure and had no alternative but to serve as contributors to the so-called Point Agreement of May 23, Using forged Tibetan seals the Chinese forced the Tibetan delegation to use the forged seals and seal the documents with them.
In this way the Chinese were able to make it appear as if the point agreement had the approval of the Tibetan Government. The so-called Chinese Liberation forces demanded the Tibetan government supply them with land for military camps, in addition to enormous amount of food. As a result, the stable Tibetan economy broke down.
For the first time in Tibetan history, the Tibetan people of Lhasa were on the verge of famine. The Tibetan people protested against the illegal measures adopted by the Chinese, but conditions continued to go from bad to worse. Newly arrived Chinese troops in Tibet Before there had not been a single Chinese soldier in Tibet. They also used their military to force the Tibetans to carry out Chinese communist reforms despite Tibetans reluctance to be involved. Ill-prepared, disorganized and badly outnumbered, the small Tibetan armed forces were no match for the invaders.
At first the Chinese persuaded many Tibetans that their intent was merely to help them share in the future greatness and wealth that Mao had promised all.
With Mounted Infantry in Tibet
In a short time the Tibetan tribesmen realized, however, that the true purpose of the invasion was otherwise. Their religion and their freedom were at stake. Despite the repeated efforts by the Dalai Lama and others in Lhasa to dissuade them, the people resisted the Chinese--at great cost: over one million dead in the s. This work includes accounts of the role of Tibetans who collaborated with the Chinese invaders, the resistance movement, the Dalai Lamas lack of support for the movement, and how even so the resistance made it possible for the Dalai Lama to escape from Lhasa in Khetsun himself was arrested while defending the Dalai Lama's summer palace, and after serving a four-year sentence, he spent close to 20 years in Lhasa as a requisitioned laborer and "class enemy".
Dragon in the Land of Snows: a History of Modern Tibet Since By Tsering Shakya Drawing on unpublished primary sources, a history of modern Tibet from provides both Chinese and Tibetan perspectives on events, describes Chinese depredations of Tibet, critiques Tibet's leadership strategy as well as that of China, and documents the country's ongoing struggle to maintain it. Political History: Published in Repression By it was evident that the aim of the Chinese was complete political domination of the Tibetan government and thereby the entire country.
The Chinese authorities accused the two Prime Ministers of conspiracy and of being imperialist agents and forced the Dalai Lama to accept their resignation in As soon as the Chinese felt that they were in control, reforms were forcibly introduced. They introduced the commune system throughout Tibet which failed miserably causing Tibet to become a land of paupers.
In , Deng Xiaoping stated that Tibet over the past 20 years had suffered greatly under the Gang of Four. He called for efforts to bring the standard of living to pre levels within three years. Villages and monasteries throughout Tibet were totally destroyed. Religious leaders and lay leaders were humiliated, imprisoned, tortured and killed by their own students, relatives and friends who were forced to turn on the leaders. Land was confiscated.
Sacred images, books of scriptures, and other objects of holy significance to the Tibetans were broken, desecrated, or simply stolen. The destructions and sufferings of the Cultural Revolution, from — , were still to come. For this he suffered nine years and eight months of imprisonment, much of which was in solidary confinement. He was tortured and humiliated during the detention. Amdo was one of the three traditional Tibetan Provinces of independent Tibet province, it would shock the viewers.
In Golok area, many people were killed and their dead bodies rolled down the hill into a big ditch. The soldiers forced family members and relatives of the dead to celebrate and dance on the dead bodies. Soon after, they were also massacred with machine guns. His reincarnation, Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, recognized at age 6 in was taken into custody by the Chinese government along with his family. On April 25, Gedhun Choekyi Nyima turned 22 and to date no one knows his whereabouts. The Chinese government asserted its political motive into the reincarnation search by installing another young boy, Gyaiancain Norbu as the 11th Panchen Lama.
Buddhist Institutions and their Population As is widely known Tibet was a Buddhist country and had over 6, monasteries and nunneries belonging to all the schools of Buddhism including Bon before Each of these had between to 7, monks and nuns. The Chinese army vandalized these religious institutions and put to banal uses or destroyed them to complete ruins.
Over monasteries and nunneries were systematically razed; their valuable collections of religious statuary were either melted down or sold in foreign antique markets. Painting masterpieces were thrown onto burning piles of priceless Tibetan books. Suggested readings. This book chronicles the Chinese government's attempts to destroy the Tibetan people and their culture and the non-violent campaign to stop it.
He had witnessed the systematic smashing of his culture and religion, and the imprisonment and execution of thousands of innocent Tibetans. Throughout his unimaginable sufferings at the hands of the Chinese his spirit remained unbroken. This powerful book is the story of his life and irrefutable testimony he even smuggled the instruments of his torture out with him to the appalling suffering of the Tibetan nation at the hands of the Chinese.
Ama Adhe spent 27 years in Chinese labour camps and is one of the few who survives to tell the stories of torture, starvation and degradation that countless Tibetans endured. When Adhe Tapontsang, known affectionately as Ama mother Adhe, left Tibet in , she was allowed to do so on the condition that she remain silent about her treatment in jail. Yet, she made a promise to herself and to the many that did not survive - she would not let the truth about China's occupation go unheard or unchallenged.
Orphans of the Cold War America and the Tibetan Struggle for planes flying over uncharted territory, from the Survival Synopsis: This is the vivid, dramatic, and never fully before revealed account of the very secret war for Tibet. Drawing on numerous previously classified documents, interviews, and his own experience as a CIA officer in charge of American covert operations inside Tibet and abroad, Knaus offers a sweeping narrative those races from Washington conference rooms to unmarked corridors of the United Nations to the peaks of the world's highest mountains.
Though it came to nothing, Tibetan freedom fighters were trained in Colorado, and the guerillas were supplied by the CIA. Imagining Tibet Author s : Rather, Heinz and Dodin, Thierry Synopsis: Essays examining how western views of Tibet have evolved from perceptions of an exotic Shangrila to a ravaged and conquered land whose society is undergoing systematic destruction.
Highlighting China's past and current propaganda on Tibet, the book demonstrates China's sensitivity regarding the legitimacy of its rule. In the absence of any solution, Smith advocates promoting Tibet's right to self-determination as the most viable strategy for sustaining international attention and maintaining the most essential elements of Tibetan national identity.
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This thoroughly informed work will be valuable not only to Tibet experts and students, but also to the larger world of Tibet activists, sympathizers, and others attempting to understand China's policies. Resentment, Resistance and Revolt When the Dalai Lama returned from the Buddhist ceremonies in India in , he was saddened to see and hear the terrible things that were happening in Kham and Amdo provinces. The Tibetan people in these two regions were subjected to unspeakable atrocities since the Chinese invasion of Their comments and responses hardly seemed to bear any relation to what was happening.
They expressed their resentment of occupation, they engaged in resistance and they revolted against the occupiers. All books for sale in-stock on premises. Shipping costs are based on books weighing 2. If your book order is heavy or oversized, we may contact you to let you know extra shipping is required. All books will be securely wrapped for shipping.
List this Seller's Books. Payment Methods accepted by seller. AbeBooks Bookseller Since: November 19, Condition: Very Good Hardcover. Historiography Document Collections. Historical Maps. Historical Encyclopedia Articles. Heading East. Schwartzberg, Cartography in Greater Tibet , in J. Harley and D. Woodward ed. Huc, Travels in Tartary, Thibet and China, during the years , vol. Online Libraries. Thesis Servers. Online Journals. General Accounts.
Specific Topics. Historical Dictionaries. Yearbooks Bibliographies Catalogue of Tibetan Studies, from china. Bellezza, Flight of the Khyung. R Bh Jin Hui et al. Goldstein, A History of Modern Tibet. Call Sign East Asia. Central Eurasia. Bibliographic and Print Sources.
Country Profiles. Byrd, Among the Tibetans , IA. Category : History of Tibet , from Wikipedia. Historical Dictionary. Encyclopedia of China, from Jongo Knows. Specific Periods. History of Regions.